UN|HUSHED Pedagogical Research Citations


At UN|HUSHED we believe in Evidence Informed Curricula. This is different from Evidence Based Curricula because we are not bound by a five to ten year lag time—and we still adhere to medically and statistically accurate information informed by proven pedagogy theory.

National Sex Education Standards: Core Content and Skills, K-12 Second Edition
FoSE
Future of Sex Education Initiative, , 2020

Abstract
The National Sex Education Standards (NSES) outline the foundational knowledge and skills students need to navigate sexual development and grow into sexually healthy adults. The updated NSES reflect advancements in research regarding sexual orientation, gender identity, social, racial, and reproductive justice, and the long-term consequences of stigma and discrimination. Other additions include: advances in medical technology, the emergence of digital technologies, and the growing impact of social and sexually explicit media on relationships.

Keywords
Comprehensive sexuality education, education standards, curriculum guidelines

Navigating Uncertain Times: How Schools Can Cope With Coronavirus
Noonoo, S
EdSurg, January, 2020

Abstract
During the past few weeks, the coronavirus has cast an uncertain future over U.S. education—particularly the ongoing school year. It has also raised a host of questions: Is remote learning possible for every school? How can educators and parents make it a meaningful experience when it’s happened so suddenly? And what roles will teachers, administrators, paraprofessionals and parents play? Those are just a few of the many questions all of us who care about education are asking. To help you navigate them and figure out what might work best for your community, EdSurge and ISTE, our parent organization, are collecting news, resources and expert advice to help educators and school leaders make informed decisions.

Keywords
Remote learning

Remote Learning Recommendations During COVID-19 Emergency
Illinois State Board of Education’s Remote Learning Advisory Group
null, March, 2020

Abstract
This document provides information and clarification to districts, schools, leaders, teachers, students, and parents as they design and implement remote learning in response to the COVID19 emergency, which is different from statutory e-learning plans. ISBE acknowledges that all students, families, schools, and districts are diverse, and supports remote learning that meets local needs and, to the greatest extent possible, minimizes the negative impact this unprecedented moment has on our students’ educational trajectories.

Keywords
Remote learning

State of Affairs in Sex Education for People with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (IDD)
Sammet Moring, N.
Planned Parenthood League of Massachusetts, , 2019

Abstract
Children and adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) are increasingly integrated into community life1 , but still face significant inequities in sexual health care and education2 . People with IDD experience high rates of sexual violence victimization, are less likely to receive sexual health care, and lack access to comprehensive sex education3–12 . Ensuring that people with IDD can receive accessible sex education is complicated by a host of practical, cultural, historical, and social justice-related barriers5,6,13–24 . As a result, people with IDD often lack crucial sexual health information, as well as the skills needed for decision making, consensual sexual expression, navigating relationships, and preventing sexual violence victimization4,15,25–35 . Access to comprehensive sex education is therefore an important component of achieving sexual health and social equity for the population of people with IDD5,15 . Planned Parenthood League of Massachusetts (PPLM) is well-poised to facilitate collaborative efforts to fill the gaps in sex education access for people with IDD. Assets include PPLM’s recognized expertise in sexual health and sex education, large networks of PPLM- trained sex educators, and strong partnerships with schools and other relevant institutions, particularly those working with people with disabilities. To ensure that PPLM’s ongoing work towards sex education equity is effective and meets the needs of the IDD community, PPLM hosted a convening, titled State of Affairs in Sex Education for People with IDD (“the Convening”) on October 4, 2018.

Keywords
Intellectual disability, developmental disability, IDD, sexual agency

Digital guidelines: Promoting healthy technology use for children
American Psychological Association
American Psychological Association, December, 2019

Abstract
Pointers for parents to keep in mind when establishing guidelines for children's technology use, in a world where many children have a tablet or smartphone.

Keywords
Technology, technology use for children

Guidelines on physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sleep for children under 5 years of age
World Health Organization
WHO, December, 2019

Abstract
These guidelines are for all healthy children under 5 years of age, irrespective of gender, cultural background or socio-economic status of families and are relevant for children of all abilities; caregivers of children with a disability or those with a medical condition, however, may seek additional guidance from a health professional.

Keywords
Physical activity for children, physical activity guidelines

Timing of puberty in boys and girls: A population‐based study
Brix, N; Ernst, A; Lauridsen, LLB; Parner, E; Stoving, H; Olsen, J; Henriksen, TB; & Ramlau-Hansen, CH
Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, October, 2018

Abstract
A secular trend towards earlier puberty has been observed in girls, while a similar trend has been more uncertain in boys. We estimated current ages at pubertal development in both boys and girls. These data derived from this study indicate that age at menarche has declined and to some extent support a decline in age at attaining other markers of pubertal development among boys.

Keywords
Puberty, menarche

DELIVER+ENABLE TOOLKIT: Scaling-up comprehensive sexuality education (CSE)
IPPF
International Planned Parenthood Federation, July, 2017

Abstract
Comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) has gained global recognition as a vital effort to empower adolescents and young people; enable them to improve and protect their health, well-being and dignity; and support them in developing critical thinking skills, citizenship, and equal, healthy and positive relationships. This toolkit offers guidance and resources on ways to: a) deliver CSE for children, adolescents, and youth in non-formal and formal settings and b) encourage other stakeholders to develop and implement CSE policies and programmes.

Keywords
Comprehensive sexuality education, toolkit

FULFIL! Guidance document for the implementation of young people’s sexual rights
IPPF & WAS.
International Planned Parenthood Federation & World Association for Sexual Health, , 2016

Abstract
Translating the sexual rights of young people into practice not only involves raising awareness among young people for them to claim their rights, but working with duty bearers, such as health providers, educators and policy makers for them to fulfil these rights in law and in services. As adolescence is a time of gradually gaining responsibilities, implementing the rights of adolescents specifically involves a dynamic process of striking a balance between protecting them while respecting their autonomy and promoting their empowerment. With this in mind, IPPF and the World Association for Sexual Health developed Fufil!. This guide addresses the critical opportunities to implement young people’s sexual rights in a global context and provides specific guidance for policy makers, health providers and educators.

Keywords
Comprehensive sexuality education, sexual rights

Inside and Out: Comprehensive Sexuality Education (CSE) Assessment Tool
IPPF & UNESCO.
International Planned Parenthood Federation & United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, , 2016

Abstract
Developed in partnership with UNESCO, IPPF’s CSE assessment tool Inside & Out enables Civil Society Organisations to assess the quality and comprehensiveness of their CSE programmes so that they can deliver high-quality rights-based CSE to adolescents and young people, especially in non-formal education settings. It includes analysis of language and messaging, programme development, educator training, interventions and national level health, demographic and social data, with a strong gender focus.

Keywords
Comprehensive sexuality education, assessment

How to educate about abortion: A guide for peer educators, teachers and trainers
IPPF
International Planned Parenthood Federation, April, 2016

Abstract
How to educate about abortion: A guide for peer educators, teachers and trainers, has been developed for trainers and educators who want to deliver workshops or training on abortion to young people, especially those training young peer educators. The guide includes key terms, instructions for facilitators as well as specific activities that educators can use.

Keywords
Abortion, abortion access, abortion education, comprehensive sexuality education

Putting sexuality back into Comprehensive Sexuality Education: making the case for a rights-based, sex-positive approach
IPPF
International Planned Parenthood Federation, August, 2016

Abstract
This discussion paper builds on IPPF’s report ‘Everyone’s right to know: delivering comprehensive sexuality education for all young people’ 2 , launched at the Women Deliver conference in May 2016. The report recommends that high quality CSE should be delivered to all young people and explores the evidence supporting the provision of sexuality education both in and outside of schools. The report notes that globally, sexuality education is patchy, and where it is provided, tends to “emphasize potential negative health risks, as opposed to seeing young people as sexual beings and recognizing the positive aspects of sexuality.” IPPF has long stated that “sexuality, and pleasure deriving from it, is a central aspect of being human, whether or not a person chooses to reproduce”3 and has supported young people’s right to access education which goes beyond a mere biology lesson to incorporate sexual pleasure and wellbeing as a crucial part of life.

Keywords
Sexuality, sexual health and wellbeing, sexual rights, sex positivity, pleasure

IMAP Statement on youth peer provision models to deliver sexual and reproductive health services to young people
IPPF
International Planned Parenthood Federation, December, 2016

Abstract
The purpose of this statement is to outline key components of the youth peer provision model, summarize existing evidence, and provide guidance to integrate this delivery approach into the existing sexual and reproductive health services offered by IPPF Member Associations.

Keywords
Comprehensive sexuality education, Youth peer provision model

How to improve young people’s access to safe abortion - Bosnia Herzegovina: Using a buddy system
IPPF
International Planned Parenthood Federation, July, 2016

Abstract
Young people face unique barriers when seeking accurate information about abortion, and in accessing abortion services. This series showcases strategies implemented by IPPF Member Associations that have successfully reduced these barriers and increased young people’s access to abortion information and services. In this short summary from Bosnia and Herzegovina, they provide a comprehensive strategy on using buddy systems in the context of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services, which is a process where a nominated volunteer or staff member - the ‘buddy’- supports a client throughout their engagement with the service. The strategy, outlines the key steps needed for successful implementation and highlighting key lessons learned to consider in taking this strategy forward. This guide can be used by programme managers and implementers to help design and inform strategies to ensure that young people are enabled to access the necessary support and services they need in the event of an unwanted pregnancy.

Keywords
Abortion, abortion access

Everyone’s right to know: delivering comprehensive sexuality education for all young people
IPPF
International Planned Parenthood Federation, March, 2016

Abstract
This report is intended to inform advocates and decision makers about how to support the sexual reproductive rights of young people around the world. It argues that comprehensive sexuality education is critical for young people to realize their rights.

Keywords
Comprehensive sexuality education,

Children and Adolescents and Digital Media
Reid Chassiakos, Y & et al.
Pediatrics, November, 2016

Abstract
Today’s children and adolescents are immersed in both traditional and new forms of digital media. Research on traditional media, such as television, has identified health concerns and negative outcomes that correlate with the duration and content of viewing. Over the past decade, the use of digital media, including interactive and social media, has grown, and research evidence suggests that these newer media offer both benefits and risks to the health of children and teenagers. Evidence-based benefits identified from the use of digital and social media include early learning, exposure to new ideas and knowledge, increased opportunities for social contact and support, and new opportunities to access health promotion messages and information. Risks of such media include negative health effects on sleep, attention, and learning; a higher incidence of obesity and depression; exposure to inaccurate, inappropriate, or unsafe content and contacts; and compromised privacy and confidentiality. This technical report reviews the literature regarding these opportunities and risks, framed around clinical questions, for children from birth to adulthood. To promote health and wellness in children and adolescents, it is important to maintain adequate physical activity, healthy nutrition, good sleep hygiene, and a nurturing social environment. A healthy Family Media Use Plan (www.healthychildren.org/MediaUsePlan) that is individualized for a specific child, teenager, or family can identify an appropriate balance between screen time/online time and other activities, set boundaries for accessing content, guide displays of personal information, encourage age-appropriate critical thinking and digital literacy, and support open family communication and implementation of consistent rules about media use.

Keywords
Digital media, technology, children and technology use

Putting Sexuality back into Comprehensive Sexuality Education: tips for delivering sex-positive workshops for young people
IPPF
International Planned Parenthood Federation, October, 2016

Abstract
Millions of young people around the world are not getting the kind of education they need and deserve when it comes to understand their sexuality. This document is designed to complement Putting Sexuality back into Comprehensive Sexuality Education: making the case for a rights-based, sex-positive approach, and it aims to give practical tips for putting IPPF's right-based, sex-positive approach, into practice.

Keywords
Comprehensive sexuality education, sex-positive

Characteristics of Primary Learners
EL Education
EL Education, August, 2015

Abstract
This document highlights the unique needs and strengths of typical young children, identifying eleven key characteristics of primary learners1 – their ways of thinking and engaging with the world and their remarkable hunger for learning. Each of these characteristics is based on the writings of developmental psychologists and educators such as Lev Vygotsky, Maria Montessori, and Jean Piaget, as well as recent peer-reviewed research and the experience of primary educators in our EL network.

Keywords
Primary learners, child development

Sexuality Education: Emerging Trends in Evidence and Practice
Haberland, N & Rogow, D.
Journal of Adolescent Health, January, 2015

Abstract
The International Conference on Population and Development and related resolutions have repeatedly called on governments to provide adolescents and young people with comprehensive sexuality education (CSE). Drawing from these documents, reviews and meta-analyses of program evaluations, and situation analyses, this article summarizes the elements, effectiveness, quality, and country-level coverage of CSE. Throughout, it highlights the matter of a gender and rights perspective in CSE. It presents the policy and evidence-based rationales for emphasizing gender, power, and rights within programs—including citing an analysis finding that such an approach has a greater likelihood of reducing rates of sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancy—and notes a recent shift toward this approach. It discusses the logic of an “empowerment approach to CSE” that seeks to empower young people—especially girls and other marginalized young people—to see themselves and others as equal members in their relationships, able to protect their own health, and as individuals capable of engaging as active participants in society.

Keywords
Young people, Sexuality education, Gender, Empowerment

What Does Not Work in Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health: A Review of Evidence on Interventions Commonly Accepted as Best Practices
Chandra-Mouli, V; Lane, C & Wong, S.
Global Health: Science and Practice, September, 2015

Abstract
Youth centers, peer education, and one-off public meetings have generally been ineffective in facilitating young people’s access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services, changing their behaviors, or influencing social norms around adolescent SRH. Approaches that have been found to be effective when well implemented, such as comprehensive sexuality education and youth-friendly services, have tended to flounder as they have considerable implementation requirements that are seldom met. For adolescent SRH programs to be effective, we need substantial effort through coordinated and complementary approaches. Unproductive approaches should be abandoned, proven approaches should be implemented with adequate fidelity to those factors that ensure effectiveness, and new approaches should be explored, to include greater attention to prevention science, engagement of the private sector, and expanding access to a wider range of contraceptive methods that respond to adolescents’ needs.

Keywords
Best practices, Sexual and reproductive health services

Contraception for adolescents in low and middle income countries: needs, barriers, and access
Chandra-Mouli, V; McCarraher, D; Phillips, S; Williamson, N & Hainsworth, G.
Reproductive Health, January, 2014

Abstract
Substantial numbers of adolescents experience the negative health consequences of early, unprotected sexual activity - unintended pregnancy, unsafe abortions, pregnancy-related mortality and morbidity and Sexually Transmitted Infections including Human Immunodeficiency Virus; as well as its social and economic costs. Improving access to and use of contraceptives – including condoms - needs to be a key component of an overall strategy to preventing these problems. This paper contains a review of research evidence and programmatic experiences on needs, barriers, and approaches to access and use of contraception by adolescents in low and middle income countries (LMIC). Although the sexual activity of adolescents (ages 10–19) varies markedly for boys versus girls and by region, a significant number of adolescents are sexually active; and this increases steadily from mid-to-late adolescence. Sexually active adolescents – both married and unmarried - need contraception. All adolescents in LMIC - especially unmarried ones - face a number of barriers in obtaining contraception and in using them correctly and consistently. Effective interventions to improve access and use of contraception include enacting and implementing laws and policies requiring the provision of sexuality education and contraceptive services for adolescents; building community support for the provision of contraception to adolescents, providing sexuality education within and outside school settings, and increasing the access to and use of contraception by making health services adolescent-friendly, integrating contraceptive services with other health services, and providing contraception through a variety of outlets. Emerging data suggest mobile phones and social media are promising means of increasing contraceptive use among adolescents.

Keywords
Contraception, Pregnancy prevention

Age of thelarche and menarche in contemporary US females: a cross-sectional analysis
Cabrera, SM; Bright, GM; Frane, JW; Blethen, SL; & Lee, PA
Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism, January, 2014

Abstract
A recent secular trend towards earlier thelarche has been suggested. The aim of this study is to examine normative ages of thelarche and menarche in contemporary US females. Data derived from this study suggests thelarche occurred earlier than recently reported, while age of menarche remained unchanged, this supported a persistent secular trend towards earlier thelarche but stable age of menarche. This suggests that the observed thelarche is gonadotropin-independent or the tempo of pubertal advancement has slowed.

Keywords
Menarche, thelarche, puberty

WHO Guidelines on Preventing Early Pregnancy and Poor Reproductive Outcomes Among Adolescents in Developing Countries
Chandra-Mouli, V; Camacho, A; & Michaud, P
Journal of Adolescent Health, May, 2013

Abstract
Adolescent pregnancy and its consequences represent a major public health concern in many low-middle income countries of the world. The World Health Organization has recently developed evidence-based guidelines addressing six areas: preventing early marriage; preventing early pregnancy through sexuality education, increasing education opportunities and economic and social support programs; increasing the use of contraception; reducing coerced sex; preventing unsafe abortion; and increasing the use of prenatal care childbirth and postpartum care. In each of these areas, World Health Organization recommends directions for future research. The summary concludes with a brief look at global and regional initiatives that provide a window of opportunity for stepping up action in this important area.

Keywords
World Health Organization, Pregnancy prevention, Early pregnancy, Child marriage

Cost and Cost-effectiveness Analysis of School-based Sexuality Education Programmes in Six Countries
UNESCO
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, May, 2011

Abstract
There is a growing body of evidence indicating that school-based sexuality education programmes are valuable and have a positive impact on young people’s sexual health by improving preventive behaviour and thereby reducing the risks of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. In supporting the right to education, UNESCO recognises the need for young people to receive high-quality comprehensive sexuality education. This study begins to fill the gaps in data on the economic aspects of sexuality education programmes worldwide, in low-, middle- and high-income countries. It also comes at a time when interest in sexuality education programmes is growing considerably. This is because they offer a way to prevent adverse health effects, including unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, and help people make conscious, responsible decisions about their sexual life. In addition, sexuality education programmes can also reduce gender inequality, improve communication within, and the quality of, interpersonal relationships, increase self-awareness and self-efficacy in a range of decision-making areas and reduce sexual violence. In the analysis of programme impact and cost effectiveness, this study only considers the health effects of sexuality education programmes.

Keywords
sexuality education

Abstinence-Only Education and Teen Pregnancy Rates: Why We Need Comprehensive Sex Education in the U.S
Stanger-Hall, K. & Hall, D.
PLoS One, October, 2011

Abstract
The United States ranks first among developed nations in rates of both teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. In an effort to reduce these rates, the U.S. government has funded abstinence-only sex education programs for more than a decade. However, a public controversy remains over whether this investment has been successful and whether these programs should be continued. Using the most recent national data (2005) from all U.S. states with information on sex education laws or policies (N = 48), we show that increasing emphasis on abstinence education is positively correlated with teenage pregnancy and birth rates. This trend remains significant after accounting for socioeconomic status, teen educational attainment, ethnic composition of the teen population, and availability of Medicaid waivers for family planning services in each state. These data show clearly that abstinence-only education as a state policy is ineffective in preventing teenage pregnancy and may actually be contributing to the high teenage pregnancy rates in the U.S. In alignment with the new evidence-based Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative and the Precaution Adoption Process Model advocated by the National Institutes of Health, we propose the integration of comprehensive sex and STD education into the biology curriculum in middle and high school science classes and a parallel social studies curriculum that addresses risk-aversion behaviors and planning for the future.

Keywords
abstinence-only, teen pregnancy

Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection in Infants and Children: Towards Universal Access: Recommendations for a Public Health Approach: 2010 Revision
World Health Organization
ANNEX H, SEXUAL MATURITY RATING (TANNER STAGING) IN ADOLESCENTS, December, 2010

Abstract
Sexual maturity rating chart according to Tanner Stages.

Keywords
Tanner stages, puberty

IPPF Framework for Comprehensive Sexuality Education (CSE)
IPPF
International Planned Parenthood Federation, January, 2010

Abstract
Increasing access to comprehensive, youth friendly, gender sensitive sexuality education’ is a stated objective within the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF)’s Strategic Framework 2005–2015. This document has been developed to support this objective, and to build upon the recommendations of an extensive, international consultation (involving IPPF staff, young people and external organizations). As well as providing an in-depth overview of Comprehensive Sexuality Education (CSE), this document aims to inspire thought and spark discussion by providing Member Associations with a basic planning framework for CSE and includes in-depth resources and sample curricula.

Keywords
Comprehensive sexuality education, sexuality education framework, sexual health and wellness programs

Responsive Classroom
.
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Abstract
Responsive Classroom is a student-centered, social and emotional learning approach to teaching and discipline. It is comprised of a set of research, and evidence-based practices designed to create safe, joyful, and engaging classrooms and school communities for both students and teachers.

Keywords
Education, learning approaches, social emotional learning, CASEL